HomeTech & ScienceHow Human Entered Into Space Age

Related Articles

How Human Entered Into Space Age

In this article we are going to discuss in detail, the beginning of Space and how human stepped in to space age.

The month of October 1957 was like a dream come true for those interested in radio and radio waves around the world. This was a time when citizens and organizations around the world, especially Russian and American, were waiting to hear a specific beep by setting a frequency on their private radio sets and radio stations.

We may find this process irrational in 2021, but the beep that came out of the radio set in 1957 was actually the culmination of human and technological progress. It was the sound of signals from the first satellite, Sputnik-1, sent into space by Beep Man.

Sputnik-1 was launched into space by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in present-day Kazakhstan, and was the starting point for a “space race” in the world.

Sputnik-1 launch background

There are some scientific, political and military aspects to the launch of Sputnik-1. One aspect of this is the International Geophysical Air. The International Council of Scientific Unions declared the period from July 1, 1957 to December 31, 1958 as International Geophysical Year. The purpose of this year’s celebration was, among other things, to send satellites into space for various studies on Earth and space. Following the announcement, the two major powers of the time, the Soviet Union and the United States, began building satellites and launching them into space.

There is another aspect of the Sputnik-1 launch. In the 1950s, the world’s two great powers, the United States and the Soviet Union, sought to develop long-range weapons. By the end of World War II, German scientists were very close to developing an intercontinental ballistic missile. Although most of these scientists worked with the Americans until the end of the war or after the war, some of their research also fell into the hands of the Soviet Union. Thus began the race between the two major powers to develop intercontinental missiles.

The Soviet Union’s efforts resulted in the development of the R-7 rocket. It was the first intercontinental ballistic missile. The first successful long-range test of this missile was performed on August 21, 1957, with a dummy warhead. It was an important step in the field of technology as well as a demonstration of the Soviet Union’s superiority over the United States in the military field. However, to further prove its superiority, the Soviet Union decided to replace the warhead with a satellite and send it into space. Thus the R-7 missile was developed to carry the Sputnik-1 into space with the necessary modifications.

What devices did Sputnik-1 consist of and how did it work?

Sputnik-1 weighed about 86 kilograms and was a ball-like satellite about 23 inches in diameter. It had a total of 4 antennas of 2.4 and 2.9 meters. The shell was about 2 mm thick and was made from a special alloy of aluminum, magnesium and titanium metals. It had a radio transmitter and various sensors and switches and 3 silver zinc batteries to run them.

The transmitter installed in this satellite transmitted signals at a certain interval which was heard in the form of a beep on the radio set. From the interval between beeps, information was received about the internal and external temperature and internal pressure of the satellite.

Sputnik-1 traveled at 18,000 miles per hour and completed one revolution around the earth in about 96 minutes. Traveling in its orbit, it traveled a maximum of 528 miles from Earth and a minimum distance of 143 miles. Due to its short distance and its extremely bright surface, it could sometimes be seen with the help of binoculars during the day.

Signals from Sputnik-1 received in the form of beeps


According to Fayyaz Al-Rasheed, a lecturer at the Institute of Space Science and Technology, University of Karachi, said while speaking about how satellite works? that the satellite was sent to Low Earth Orbit near the Earth and that its purpose was to receive radio signals sent by the satellite from Low Earth Orbit to Earth. This satellite did this for about 3 weeks after which its batteries ran out and it became inoperable or ‘non-operational’. However, according to Fayyaz-ur-Rasheed, the satellite continued to orbit the earth for three months.

A technician working on Sputnik-1 — Photo: NASA
A technician working on Sputnik-1 — Photo: NASA
Due to the extremely bright surface of Sputnik-1, it could sometimes be seen with the help of binoculars during the day. Photo: NASA
Due to the extremely bright surface of Sputnik-1, it could sometimes be seen with the help of binoculars during the day. Photo: NASA

Impact of Sputnik-1 launch on the world

The immediate effect of the launch of Sputnik-1 was that the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union, which was limited to the political and military spheres, now spread to the field of science. However, according to Fayyaz al-Rasheed, “this proved to be a boon for science in a way, as Russia and the United States and their allies have since expanded into faster means of communication and more space technology to monitor each other.” Accelerate innovation efforts. The greatest proof of this is that man landed on the moon in 1969, just 12 years after the launch of Sputnik-1.

As we mentioned above, the Sputnik-1 space rocket was actually designed to be the R-7 missile, the world’s first intercontinental ballistic missile. According to Fayyaz, “After going through many stages of innovation with the same rocket technology, today we have reached the point where we are sending our space missions to Mars.”

Various space rockets designed for R-7 missiles. Photo: Wikipedia
Various space rockets designed for R-7 missiles. Photo: Wikipedia

The modern and fastest means of communication we use today would not have been possible without the experiments of Sputnik-1. Today’s satellite phones and satellite televisions use the same radio transmission technology that was tested in Sputnik-1. In this regard, Fayyaz Al-Rasheed Sahib further told us that ‘Sputnik-1 was not sent at a very high altitude above the ground, but today’s modern communication satellites are present at such an altitude that with the help of a total of 3 satellites communicate around the earth. Can be created.

World Space Week

In commemoration of the launch of Sputnik-1 on October 4, 1957 and the signing of the Outer Space Treaty on October 10, 1967, the United Nations General Assembly declared December 6, 1999 as World Space Week every year from October 4 to October 10.

Every year a special theme of World Space Week is decided. Last year the theme was ‘Satellites Improve Life’ while this year the theme is ‘Women in Space’.

Speaking on the occasion of World Space Week, Fayyaz Al-Rasheed said that special programs are being organized in scientific institutes all over the world including Pakistan on the occasion of this week. He further said that under the supervision of Prof. Dr. Javed Iqbal, Director of the Department at the Institute of Space Science and Technology, Karachi University, various seminars and astronomical observations are organized for the students and the public.

Today's state-of-the-art satellites based on the Sputnik-1 experiment are ensuring the fastest communication — Photo: AP
Today’s state-of-the-art satellites based on the Sputnik-1 experiment are ensuring the fastest communication — Photo: AP

From receiving messages on your cell phone today to getting weather information and talking directly to someone sitting in the other corner of the world, to reaching your destination via GPS in an unknown city, our There are countless tasks in everyday life that would not have been possible without modern satellites located several kilometers above the ground. And the development of these modern satellites would not have been possible without the ball-shaped little satellite Sputnik-1, which brought human civilization into the space age.

Latest Posts

error: Content is protected !!